scarpe hogan online yahoo

dopo Sanremo mi racconto con mie le canzoni

MILANO Un nuovo album per Elodie, che dopo l’avventura sanremese il 17 febbraio pubblica il suo ‘Tutta colpa mia’. “Con Sanremo mi sento cresciuta ha detto la cantante e ora sono pronta a raccontarmi con le mie canzoni”. Il lavoro da studio della cantante, seconda classificata alla 15/a edizione di ‘Amici’ e che sul palco del Teatro Ariston si è presentata in gara tra i Big con la canzone intitolata proprio come il nuovo album, contiene un totale di tredici brani che vanno da quello sanremese e arrivano a ‘La verità’, passando per ‘Amarsi basterà’ cantata assieme a Zibba, ‘La differenza’ e la manciata di altri titoli con i quali la voce romana, classe 1990, ha deciso di raccontarsi dopo le due esperienze musical televisive scarpe hogan online yahoo.

“Il Festival mi è servito molto per crescere ha raccontato Elodie, che di cognome fa Di Patrizi e il mio bilancio personale di Sanremo è ottimo scarpe hogan online yahoo. Mi sono divertita nonostante la tensione del dover dimostrare di essere in grado di stare su quel palcoscenico. Anche se musicalmente sono nata da poco, sono soddisfatta perché non mi sono fatta mangiare dalle emozioni”. La produzione dell’album di Elodie è firmata, oltre che da Luca Mattioni, anche da Emma Marrone che ad ‘Amici’ aveva avuto la cantante nella sua squadra. “Emma è una donna forte ha raccontato la voce della nuova ‘Sono pazza di te’ e sto cercando di imparare da lei il più possibile. sempre stata presente nelle fasi di realizzazione dell’album e anche se sono consapevole del fatto che il suo nome in qualche modo pesa, penso di avere una mia personalità che con il tempo riuscirò a fare arrivare al pubblico” scarpe hogan online yahoo.

Oltre a Emma, che ha messo lo zampino come autrice anche nel brano sanremese, al lavoro di penna per Elodie si sono messi numerosi nomi noti, da Roberto Angelini a Giovanni Caccamo, oltre a Dario Faini, Jack Jaselli, Amara, Federica Camba e altri, tra i quali anche Ermal Meta, terzo classificato tra i Big al Festival di quest’anno scarpe hogan online yahoo. Conosciuta dal pubblico dei talent grazie all’esperienza in quello targato Maria De Filippi, Elodie ha anche un curriculum musicale pre Amici. “Se non avessi partecipato ad un talent non avrei magari potuto fare un Festival di Sanremo ha raccontato la cantante ma prima di andare in televisione ho fatto la mia gavetta suonando nei locali. ‘Amici’ mi ha dato la possibilità di fare un live alla settimana per diversi mesi, così da abituarmi ad esibirmi davanti ad un pubblico” scarpe hogan online yahoo.

Elodie debutterà live il 26 aprile all’Alcatraz di Milano. “Sarà una occasione molto importante per il mio percorso ha detto e per quella serata mi piacerebbe avere con me anche Loredana Bertè che ho invitato. Spero che potrà venire”. Oltre che per il concerto milanese, Elodie sarà impegnata nei prossimi giorni anche con il fitto calendario del suo instore tour in tutta Italia, con partenza fissata per domani alla Mondadori di Piazza Duomo a Milano.

scarpe hogan yahoo

estim de l’impression

Stratasys will be previewing demonstrations of next generation manufacturing technologies at IMTS 2016 as part of its SHAPING WHAT NEXT vision for manufacturing. SHAPING WHAT NEXT builds on Stratasys industrial FDM 3D printing expertise to respond to the needs of customers most challenging applications, addressing manufacturers needs to rapidly produce strong parts ranging in size from an automobile armrest to an entire aircraft interior panel scarpe hogan yahoo
. The Stratasys ecosystem of additive and traditional technologies, software workflows, materials development and professional services align with individual application needs better meeting quality, cost and delivery metrics while unlocking the capabilities of additive manufacturing to revolutionize how parts are designed and built. The Stratasys technology demonstrators are being displayed at the Stratasys IMTS booth, N 60, September 12 Stratasys Infinite Build 3D Demonstrator Developed for Large Part Production in Custom OEM and On Demand Aftermarket Applications The Stratasys Infinite Build 3D Demonstrator is designed to address the requirements of aerospace, automotive and other industries for large, lightweight, thermoplastic parts with repeatable mechanical properties. The Infinite Build 3D Demonstrator features a revolutionary approach to FDM extrusion that increases throughput and repeatability. The system turns the traditional 3D printer concept on its side to realize an approach, which prints on a vertical plane for practically unlimited part size in the build direction. Aerospace giant Boeing played an influential role in defining the requirements and specifications for the demonstrator. Boeing is currently using an Infinite Build 3D Demonstrator to explore the production of low volume, lightweight parts. Ford Motor Company is also exploring innovative automotive manufacturing applications for this demonstrator and will evaluate this new technology. Ford and Stratasys will work together to test and develop new applications for automotive grade 3D printed materials that were not previously possible due to limited size, enabling and accelerating innovative automotive product design. manufacturing represents a great opportunity for Boeing and our customers, so we made a strategic decision more than a decade ago to work closely with Stratasys on this technology scarpe hogan yahoo
. We are always looking for ways to reduce the cost and weight of aircraft structures, or reduce the time it takes to prototype and test new tools and products so we can provide them to customers in a more affordable and rapid manner. The Stratasys Infinite Build 3D Demonstrator enables products to be made at a much larger and potentially unlimited length, offering us a breakthrough tool to add to our robust additive manufacturing processes, said Darryl Davis, President, Boeing Phantom Works. printing holds the promise of changing automotive design and manufacturing because it opens up new ways to innovate and create efficiencies in production. Our vision at Ford is to make high speed, high quality printing of automotive grade parts a reality scarpe hogan yahoo
. We are excited about the future opportunities that the scalable and versatile Infinite Build concept can unlock, and look forward to collaborating with Stratasys to help achieve our goals, said Mike Whitens, director, Vehicle Enterprise Sciences, Ford Research Advanced Engineering scarpe hogan yahoo
. Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator Combines Stratasys Advanced Extrusion Technologies with Siemens Motion Control Hardware and PLM Software Stratasys and Siemens have been working very closely together to further their shared vision of making 3D printing a viable and indispensable component of production manufacturing. As an example of this vision, Stratasys developed the Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator, integrating its core additive manufacturing technologies with industrial motion control hardware and design printing software capabilities provided by Siemens. This Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator is designed to revolutionize the 3D printing of composite parts. In addition to widespread use in transportation industries like Automotive and Aerospace, industries such as Oil Gas and Medical use composite materials to make strong yet lightweight structures. Unfortunately, composites production is constrained by labor intensive processes and geometric limitations. The Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator delivers true 3D printing by using an 8 axis motion system that enables precise, directional material placement for strength while also reducing dramatically the need for speed hindering support strategies. This redefines how future lightweight parts will be built, and provides a glimpse into how this technology could be used to accelerate the production of parts made from a wide variety of materials. is pleased to support Stratasys in their innovative additive manufacturing initiatives, of which the Stratasys Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator is one of the most promising. By working closely with Stratasys on motion control and CNC automation, Siemens is helping to create a flexible, multi function manufacturing workflow that puts 3D printing firmly in the factory. We look forward to continuing to work with Stratasys to build manufacturing solutions that transform industries, said Arun Jain, VP, Motion Control, Digital Factory US, Siemens scarpe hogan yahoo
. is building on our success in manufacturing with applications such as manufacturing aids, injection molds and composite tooling, and leveraging our relationships with innovative industry leaders to further extend the applicability of additive manufacturing in demanding productio

scarpe hogan su yoox

Ecological Role of Lipids in the Health and Success of Fish Populations

The health or fitness of fish populations in aquatic ecosystems can be assessed by a variety of criteria ranging from individual biochemical and physiological measures to population level attributes such as growth, reproductive success, or year class strength scarpe hogan su yoox
. Lipid storage and dynamics within the organism, however, are a particular important attribute of fish health and future population success. Lipids are critical not only to the survival and fitness of individuals but also to the success of reproduction and recruitment of future year classes within the population scarpe hogan su yoox
. This chapter discusses four areas in which lipids play an important role in fish health including (1) overwinter starvation and survival, (2) energy allocation strategies, (3) reproductive performance and early life history. and (4) environmental stress. Indirect effects of early bass shad interactions on predator population structure and food web dynamics. Predation in Aquatic Communities. Hanover, CT: Univ. Press of New England; 1987:p. 103 117. Downstream gradients in bioindicator responses: point source contaminant effects on fish health. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. reservoir. Environ scarpe hogan su yoox
. Biol. Fish. Structuring of a predator population through temperature mediated effects on prey availability. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Effects of copper sulphate on the lipid content of Channa punctatus (Block). J. Adv. Zool. 4:109 111; 1983. The ecological and geographic aspects of the fecundity of the plaice. J. Mar. Biol. Assn. Mercury induced time dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. J. Environ. Sci. Health B24:145 166; 1989.Bell, G. The costs of reproduction and their consequences. Am. Nat. Evaluation of growth and energy storage as biological markers of DDT exposure in sailfin mollies. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Clupea harengus L scarpe hogan su yoox
.). J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 28:211 240; 1963. Growth energy partitioning by juvenile bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque. J. Fish. Biol. Effects of egg composition and prey density on the larval growth and survival of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeciformis Mitchill). J. Fish. Biol. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon. Toxicol. App. Pharmacol. Piscivory, growth, and size selective mortality of age 0 pikeperch (Stizostedion lucioperca). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Cannibalism as a factor in first year survival of walleye in Oneida lake. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Poor reproductive success of striped bass from a reservoir with reduced summer habitat. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Summer habitat suitability for striped bass in Chesapeake Bay: reflections on a population decline. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. Fish nutrition. Adv. Mar. Biol. Nutrition and Feeding in Fish. Orlando, FL: Academic Press; 1985. Nutrition. Fish Physiology scarpe hogan su yoox
. vol. VIII. Bioenergetics and Growth. New York: Academic Press; 1979:p. 1 70.

hogan scarpe uomo yoox

Friday 5 for February 17th

As franchise establishments become more popular with entrepreneurs, they might wonder if there are any extra incorporation notes they need to keep in mind. There are []

The post What Entrepreneurs Need to Know About Incorporating Franchises appeared first on GoSmallBiz. Here are my top five picks from last week. I have added my comment about each article and would like to hear what you think too.

7 Impressive Tactics to Build Customer Loyalty and Create Your Own ‘Super Users’ by Anton Kraly

(Performance Marketer) There are so many customer loyalty building tactics out there hogan scarpe uomo yoox
. Unfortunately, most are terribly outdated or just noise cluttering the effective tactics. We busted through that noise found seven powerful tactics you can start using now to take your loyal customers to ‘super user’ status!

My Comment: This short article includes a list of six ways to drive customer loyalty. I have two favorites. Number one on the list is about solving a customer’s problems. Isn’t that what they want? (Rhetorical question!) And, number seven is about contributing to the community. Customers love to know a business is involved in charity or community effort. It can create an emotional connection.

Customer Experience Excellence Centre Analysis by Nunwood

(KPMG) For seven years the Excellence Centre has been comprehensively researching the UK and US markets through the Customer Experience Excellence (CEE) programme.

My Comment: This is a comprehensive 36 page report, loaded with ideas, stats and examples about customer experience “moments” that matter hogan scarpe uomo yoox
. Pay attention to their six pillars of customer experience, especially the one on personalization. That’s a major trend that can give a company a big competitive edge. You’ll have to download this report, but it is well worth it.

Here’s The Number One Reason You’re Letting Yourself Get Away With Providing Bad Customer Service by Bob Phibbs

(Retail Doctor) Bad customer service could best be summed up by Lily Tomlin’s character Ernestine, “We’re the phone company; we don’t have to care.”

My Comment: I’m always intrigued by the different definitions people have for customer service. This article by Bob Phibbs begins with a good one: Customer service is the ability to make one person feel, for just a few minutes, like they are the most important person in the world. From there he gives some great examples of good and bad service with three big takeaways at the end.

21 Ways to Increase Motivation and Engagement with Contact Center Employees by Michael Becker

(Sharpen) According to Quantum Workplace, customer service employees are among the least engaged at work, falling behind human resources, sales, marketing, engineering, R operations, finance and IT, in that order.

My Comment: Our friends at Sharpen keep putting out great content. The title of this article indicates that it is focused on contact centers, which it is. But, even if you aren’t in a contact center, this is definitely worth taking the time to read hogan scarpe uomo yoox
. There are plenty of good ideas that are applicable to almost any job.

Customer Success: Nearly everything you need to know by Eric Johnson

(Typeform) Customer success is a vehicle for helping customers succeed with your product, beyond expectations. How? By helping users adopt your product, by being there when your customers need you, and by reaching out with solutions people didn’t even know they needed hogan scarpe uomo yoox
.

And that fits right into your business goal: to proactively impact customer lifetime value by increasing retention and driving growth.

My Comment: “Customer Success” is a phrase that has become popular in the last two or three years. Helping customers be more successful with your products and services is important to getting them to become repeat customers (and hopefully loyal customers) hogan scarpe uomo yoox
. This is a BIG article with a lot of great information.10 Customer Experience Influencers You Really Should Follow by Adam Ramshaw

(Genroe) There is no shortage of data on the interwebs but much of it is not worth reading. The trick is to find the information written by the people that add value and challenge your thinking. Then listen to what they say and hone your ideas against them.

hogan scarpe yoox

gli accessori in pitone

VideoMagA me gli Oscar

di Lynn Hirschbergdi Redazione People

ItaliaMondoGossipLifeStarFamily VipBeauty5 prodotti passepartout da avere sempre con sé in borsetta

di Eleonora Negri

NewsTrendBeauty starCapelliViso e corpoMake upProfumiBenessereSai che c’è di nuovo? L’olio di tea tree

di Domenico Marcella

Dieta e alimentazioneStar ProgramFitnessSalute e prevenzioneSessoWhat Women WantSpa e trattamentiFashionPenelope Cruz da Burberrye gli altri vip in front row

di Margherita Calabidi Mario Mancadi Carolina Saporiti

Oroscopo della settimanaOroscopo di CoppiaTarocchiTravellerMiss e Mister Museo: chi è il più bello tra loro?

di Sara Pietrantonidi Enrica Brocardo

My BusinessMiReivento, tornare al lavoro dopo la maternità

di Redazione MyBusiness

View full site

Il pitone è una delle vere manie di questo Autunno/inverno 2015 16, e si posa autenticamente vero o sfacciatamente fake su borse e scarpe, come hanno dimostrato gli stilisti più cool sulle passerelle hogan scarpe yoox
. Dagli stivali hot di Lanvin e Chloé alle borse da portare a mano di Miu Miu e Marni: l’effetto rettile si conferma un evergreen del lusso, anche questa stagione hogan scarpe yoox
.

A voi la scelta se acquistare un pezzo deluxe con scontrino a molti zeri, o un accessorio in versione fake decisamente low cost hogan scarpe yoox
. Del resto il pitone è (e resta) uno dei pellami più corteggiati dalle donne, perché si posa chic e sofisticato sugli accessori, e regala quell’allure grintosa e allo stesso tempo sofisticata agli outfit da giorno e da sera hogan scarpe yoox
.

scarpe hogan per bambini outlet

Google Calls Attention To Disability Rights

THANK YOU FOR VIEWING SHARING AND RESPONDING THANK YOU IN ADVANCE, IS IT LEGAL FOR NC PUBLIC SCHOOLS TO DENY AND DEPRIVE ANY NC SCHOOL AGE QUALIFIED DISABLED CHILD HIS OR HER RIGHT TO ENROLL AND ATTEND NC PUBLIC SCHOOLS WHEN THE,REASON FOR THE NON ATTENDANCE IS OF NO FAULT OF THE CHILD OR HIS OR HER PARENT BUT,THAT OF THE NORTH CAROLINA PUBLIC SCHOOLS scarpe hogan per bambini outlet
. FOR YEARS AT A TIME NOT JUST THE TEN DAYS BEFORE TRUANCY CHARGES ARE FILED AGAINST THE PARENTS OR STUDENTS ARE CHARGED WITH TRUANCY AND SOME BY THE JUDGE SENTENCE TO THE EXTENT THAT IF THE CHILD/ STUDENT MISSES ONE DAY OF SCHOOL THE PARENT HAS TO DO 45 DAYS IN JAIL scarpe hogan per bambini outlet
. THE STUDENT WAS ORDERED TO RETURN BACK TO SCHOOL AND CONTINUED TO BE BULLIED IMMEDIATELY BUT WITH NC PUVLIC SCHOOLS THE LOCAL DISTRICT ATTORNEYS OFFICE STATED THAT THEY HAVE NO LAW ON THE BOOK TO EVEN DETERMINE THAT THE CRIME TRUANCY HAD HAS BEEN COMMITTED BY AND THE NC GOVERNOR PAT MC CRORY scarpe hogan per bambini outlet
. NC LEGISLATIVE BODIES OF GOVERNMENT THUS FAR HAS NOT BEEN WILLING TO PUT SUCH A LAW IN PLACE. NOR HAS THE NC STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION AND BECAUSE OF SUCH THEY ARE AIDING AND ABETTING THE NC PUBLIC SCHOOLS WHO ARE COMMITTING TRUANCY FOR YEARS NOT DAYS AND THEY ARE IMUNE THUS FAR OF CRIMINAL PROSECUTION scarpe hogan per bambini outlet
. THATS FREEZING THE CHILDREN OUT OF THE NC PUBLIC SCHOOLS EQUALLING TO JUST ICE AND NOT JUSTICE ALL DONE NC GOVERNMENT STYLE scarpe hogan per bambini outlet
.

scarpe hogan per neonato

Habermas Il rasoio di Occam

Nell’ultima fatica di Axel tradotta in italiano il nesso fra soggettiva e oggettiva torna a essere profondamente interrogato, sebbene in forme talvolta un po’ scolastiche scarpe hogan per neonato
. Si tratta di un tema classico del pensiero occidentale, che merita di essere riattraversato, specie in conseguenza dell’erompere della rivoluzione neoliberista e del rovesciamento dell’ordine di priorità fra privato e pubblico che essa ha comportato scarpe hogan per neonato
.

Nel contesto della “continentale” più recente, una delle figure più spiccate e interessanti è quella di Catherine Malabou. La sua ricerca, partita da una matrice “derridiana” ed “hegeliana”, si sta sempre più volgendo verso il territorio concettuale definito dal New Materialism scarpe hogan per neonato
. Nell’intervista concessa alla nostra rubrica spiega perché.

d’eccezione contro il terrorismo? Intervista a Franois Saint Bonnet

Lo stato d’eccezione ha una lunga in Francia. Tipicamente usato per far fronte a crisi di vario genere, oggi è invocato in chiave antiterroristica scarpe hogan per neonato
. Ma, secondo il giurista Franois Saint Bonnet, non ci sono garanzie che questa sia una buona soluzione.

Riconoscimento o disaccordo? e Rancière a confronto

Populismo e

PELLIZZETTI Demofobia. Il demos come minaccia del kratos WINTERS Che cos l PETRUCCIANI Il disagio della URBINATI Il come confine estremo della rappresentativa DEL SAVIO/MAMELI Sulla machiavelliana di McCormick: perch il pu essere democratico McCORMICK Sulla distinzione fra e DEL SAVIO/MAMELI Il democratico: e gli appetiti delle PANISSIDI Le avventure della scarpe hogan per neonato
. Noi, e il muro di Atene

scarpe hogan per bambino

Earn KudoZ points effectively

First of all it is very helpful to reply only KudoZ questions you are sure you can help with. Answering not exact information comes with a risk not be taken seriously next time. You have to remember that other translator’s can comment your answer and thus fight for their own KudoZ points scarpe hogan per bambino
. There are some useful hints I added here:

1/ Follow up the questions to be informed quickly about new ones. It is useful to subscribe for KudoZ questions e mail notifications or run KudoZ application on your computer scarpe hogan per bambino
.

5/ If there are some proposed answers already read them carefully and follow the links the answerers provided. Maybe you’ll find out that their reply is misleading. Then your answer is more appreciated.

6/ Be sure not to provide the same answer as already submitted scarpe hogan per bambino
. The time stamp will show that you have just “copied” the answer more or less.

7/ If someone provided an answer you think is right and helpful there is still a possibility to earn some BrowniZ for the comment scarpe hogan per bambino
.

8/ Be careful with the comment and do not derogate other translators. Maybe they have studied the problem deeper than you.

9/ Always provide only answers you are sure about the meaning.

10/ Try to provide as much information as possible but needed only. Be sure the translator asking the question needs your help during his translation and has no time for your ideas scarpe hogan per bambino
.

scarpe hogan per uomo

ethics and experience

“The advantages of having an enemy are well known. In Orwell’s dystopian novel “1984” suddenly a new best seller in the Trump era the masses engage in a daily mandatory ritual, the “Two Minutes of Hate,” during which their anger is feverishly stoked against the foe of the moment. Dictators, strongmen and autocrats have practiced the art of drumming up loathing toward others to great effect..

I brand beneficiano in qualche modo dal mercato secondario? Certo, perch aumenta il fattore cool di un paio di scarpe scarpe hogan per uomo
. Nike ha sempre rifiutato ogni commento, ma certo ne segue i movimenti: non un caso che qualche mese fa sia passato a Nike John Donahoe, ceo di Ebay e quindi esperto di aste online. Per i grandi marchi, la giusta politica scarpe hogan per uomo
.

AbstractThis study investigates the question of whether bone structures are injured when a vehicle rolls over a foot. A total of 15 detached feet from deceased persons who had donated their bodies to research were rolled over using a VW Passat station wagon scarpe hogan per uomo
. The feet were enclosed in various types of shoes.

Ci che pi convince, per la seriet con cui il nuovo corso di Marni si ritaglia da subito un posto scomodo e non scontato in un panorama dove tutti giocano sulla sicurezza invece di investire nel rischio scarpe hogan per uomo
. L di Risso ha bisogno di altro tempo e soprattutto del territorio pi libero dell femminile per esprimersi al completo. La prima prova, per un preludio che fa venire voglia di capire che cosa succeder nel primo atto..

(2008) The impact of electronic word of mouth: The adoption of online opinions in online customer communities. (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. (2001) The communications importance of consumer meaning in cause linked events: Findings from a US event for benefiting breast cancer research.

DIY Hot Oil Treatment. Looking for a new way to step your hair game up, then check out Hot Oil Treatments. Hot oil treatments are perfect for adding shine and moisture to your hair while combating frizz. Patterns of reproduction in two populations of pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus, with differing food resources. Env. Biol.

Per tre anni abbiamo tenuto tutto ancora in comune, conti, ufficio e case, poi ci siamo divisi. Siamo stati bravi tutti e due. D. The Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) seeks to lead the apparel industry toward a shared vision of sustainability built upon a common approach for evaluating sustainability performance. By developing a common tool the Sustainable Apparel Index the SAC enables apparel industry companies to measure the environmental and social impact of apparel production throughout the product lifecycle, from design to end of use or recycling of the product scarpe hogan per uomo
. The potential impact of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition is enormous.

scarpe hogan per neonati

English Environmental Translation by Shannon Scott Science Translation

gained his first degree in Chinese from the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1997, and graduated again in 2003 with a second degree in Geography. He spent two of the intervening years in China, where he translated documents for numerous NGOs in the environmental, development and health fields, as well as completing a stint as a financial news editor for an international media organisation scarpe hogan per neonati
. He currently manages the University of Canterbury s International Training Programme, based in the university Centre for Continuing Education.One of the great pleasures and occasionally frustrations in translation is hunting for translations of new words and unfamiliar terminology. It can be like a journey you begin in one place, follow some false trails, backtrack a bit, and then stumble into a goldmine. Along the way you learn all about things that you’d never even thought existed before, some very useful, and some positively abstract. This article presents some of my own small journeys, tracking down English translations for Chinese words and phrases in the environmental field. I touch on a few common issues, such as misleading dictionary entries, words that don’t appear in the dictionaries at all, and region specific words. The range of topics covers geomorphology (the study of landforms), climatology, and general environmental terminology. Top of my list in this category is nishiliu a word that describes a certain sort of geological mass movement, a type of landslide. The primary English equivalent that is provided by almost every dictionary is “mud rock flow”, which also happens to be the literal character for character translation of the Chinese word. Unfortunately, as far as I can tell, “mud rock flow” has no currency in common English usage. Instead, the closest equivalent is “debris flow”. Both the English and the Chinese terms refer to a rapidly flowing, and sometimes destructive, mixture of rocks and fine particles (“debris”) carried by torrential waters, a phenomenon common in mountainous regions scarpe hogan per neonati
.Dictionaries are compiled by people like you and me, with a finite knowledge of the world, and so are not infallible. A web page search for the phrase “mud rock flow” returned 959 hits. Then, to test the theory that these pages had been written by individuals using Chinese English bilingual dictionaries, I ran the same search but excluded web pages with the terms “china” and “cn” (this was done by entering +”mud rock flow” china cn in the Search box). This resulted in a total of only 12 hits, of which six were also definitely related to China or Taiwan. Thus, out of a total of 959 web pages carrying the phrase “mud rock flow”, 953 were connected with China or Chinese in some way, leaving only 6 that had no confirmed link. For comparison, a search for the phrase “debris flow” returned 17,300 hits from around the world. This would suggest that “mud rock flow” is a product of Chinese bilingual dictionaries, and may be an example of ‘translationese’ a literally translated term or phrase used instead of the ‘natural’ option in the target language. Interestingly, there are two other Chinese words for debris flow that appear to be used less often: yanxieliu (“rock debris flow”) and tushiliu (“earth rock flow”). The latter of these is used more frequently in Taiwan (Taipei Municipal Teachers College 2003). In some cases the bilingual dictionaries provide one of the possible equivalents in the target language, but omit others. An example is with qihou bianhua. Qihou literally means “climate”, and bianhua means “change” or “vary” scarpe hogan per neonati
. The obvious translation of qihou bianhua, and the one featured in most bilingual dictionaries, is “climate change”. At this point it is worth noting that, scientifically speaking, the word “climate” refers to “the integrated weather experienced by a site or region over a period of many years” (Sturman and Tapper 1996). Therefore, climate change is the change in the long term averaged weather patterns. The definition of qihou in the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian (Modern Chinese Dictionary, 1996 edition) agrees with that for the English word climate: “The general meteorological conditions in a specific region, as determined by many years of observations”. The problem arises when short term phenomena and changes are included as examples of qihou bianhua in Chinese texts: for example, cold waves/cold surges (a winter time meteorological phenomenon) and typhoons are listed as examples of qihou bianhua in Zhao and Chen (1999). In this instance, qihou bianhua really means “fluctuations in the weather”. In another example, in a Taiwanese movie I saw recently, one character says to another “Qihou bianhua le” when the weather changed from hot and dry to wet and stormy. Translated according to the dictionary, this would become “The climate has changed.” In reality, it means that the weather has changed. So, there are really two different senses to this compound, only one of which is supplied by the dictionaries.Pitfalls can also arise when a compound word or phrase is provided with the full literal translation, but, in the target language, a part of that compound is not usually associated with the other part scarpe hogan per neonati
. An example is with shengtai huanjing. Again, most dictionaries provide the literal translation, “ecological environment”, which is not an unused or impossible combination in English. The problem is that this compound is rarely used as such in English. Usually when we speak of the “environment”, we are talking about the “ecological environment”: there is no need to add the word “ecological” scarpe hogan per neonati
. In Chinese, huanjing can also refer to shengtai huanjing, but the full compound is customarily used, in contrast to the English.Of course, sometimes the dictionaries don’t provide us with the word at all. An example of one word that I cannot find even in large Chinese only dictionaries is jian, jiandi or huangtu jian. According to the Atlas of Landforms of China (1985), this is a type of shallow valley peculiar to loess regions. A jian may be several hundred metres to several kilometres wide and tens of kilometres long, and has a flat valley floor. It is formed where loess has filled a previous river valley, and is mainly formed in river headwaters in areas not yet reached by headward erosion caused by the modern river (Atlas of Landforms of China 1985). Fortunately, the same reference provides a handy English word for the landform, “loess vale”, which seems a reasonable translation. Interestingly, the character for jian has the same pronunciation as another character which refers to ravines or gullies in general.Another word that has evaded the dictionaries, and which has received some interest in the Chinese media this year, is haizi. To all intents and purposes, haizi refers to a mirage, but the usual Chinese word for mirage is haishi shenlou. Mirages hit the news in the northern coastal city of Dalian this year, when a line of hills, together with several chimneys, mysteriously appeared over the sea near the port. According to a spokesperson from the Dalian Meteorological Observatory, quoted in the Bandao Chenbao newspaper on 31 July 2003, this was a haizi, not a haishi shenlou. What’s the difference? asked the baffled reporter. The Observatory spokesperson replied that the cityscape of far away London appearing in the air over the desert or the East China Sea would be an example of haishi shenlou, whereas an image of an island appearing above the real island would be an example of haizi. Further, haishi shenlou are usually short lived phenomena, whereas haizi last for some time. I would be curious to know whether haizi is a recently coined word.Intriguing landforms and local climatesAs is apparent above in the discussion on huangtu jian, locally important landforms can be given names that are very specific to that kind of landform and that region. Since China has such a wide range of landscapes, the language has developed a number of interesting locally specific or landform specific terms, some of which, because of their specificity, give rise to difficulties when translating them to another language. For example, southwest China, and Yunnan and Guizhou in particular, has many tectonically formed basins known locally as bazi. These usually have a relatively flat floor, and are ringed by hills or mountains, often arranged along bounding faultlines. Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, lies in such a basin. The basin is bounded to the west by the dramatic fault scarp of Xishan (the Western Hills), which towers above the expanse of Dianchi, the largest lake in Yunnan. the plain), and does not include the surrounding hills.The issue of landform naming is also met when discussing the wonderful variety of karst landforms in China, of which the spectacular hills in the vicinity of Guilin, in Guangxi, are the most famous example. Three words are used to describe these hills in Chinese, depending on their arrangement. A single tower or hill is referred to as gufeng, whereas groups of peaks are divided into fenglin and fengcong. The Landform Atlas of China provides a useful translation for gufeng “solitary peak”, and Sweeting (1995) suggests “peak forest” for fenglin and “peak cluster” for fengcong. The Hanyu Da Cidian (Chinese English Dictionary, 1993 edition) agrees with peak cluster for fengcong, but falls down with fenglin, for which it suggests hoodoo, fungling, or needle karst. Hoodoo is an actual word (from similar roots to “voodoo”), and refers to bizarre rock pinnacles or columns formed in arid regions that are subject to occasional heavy rainfalls (Bates and Jackson 1987). Although much of the Guangxi karst is certainly fantastic in form, the processes of formation are somewhat different due to the humid climate. So, hoodoo can be eliminated as a possible translation. Fungling is obviously a transliteration of the Chinese pronunciation, but does not follow current pinyin (romanisation) usage. Needle karst sounds reasonable, but would appear to have little currency in the geomorphological literature. Interestingly, European karst terminology tends to focus on the forms of the individual hills; thus there is tower karst and cone karst, among others. Sweeting (1995) notes that, for example, the term ‘tower karst’ cannot be applied to fenglin because one area of fenglin may contain hills of a wide variety of shapes.Sometimes we come across compound words that simply do not make sense translated directly into English. Thus, for example, many writings on Yunnan province refer to the liti qihou, or ‘three dimensional climate’, of the mountainous region in the northwest of the province. What this refers to is fairly clear the large difference in altitude between the valley floors and the plateaux and mountain tops results in a marked vertical gradation of climatic zones over a short horizontal difference. For instance, if you travel from the famous town of Lijiang to pretty Lugu Lake, you must cross the gorge of the Jinsha River, the name given to the upper reaches of the Yangtze. Starting from a cool plateau above 2000 m, in a short space of time you plunge down a dusty zigzag road to the valley floor, where you see bananas and mangoes growing on the mighty river’s banks. It’s an impressive display of liti qihou. Although the phenomenon is of course common to all mountain environments, the problem is how to translate this phrase into English. We do not normally think of climate as having dimensionality in the sense that there could be a difference between a 2 d and a 3 d climate. Secondly, and one that translators should already be aware of, is that we shouldn’t put total faith in dictionaries. Dictionaries are compiled by people like you and me, with a finite knowledge of the world, and so are not infallible. The most up to date dictionary, too, is always out of date, as new words and phrases are constantly added to a language and old ones go out of fashion. And thirdly, research unfamiliar terms thoroughly indeed, you will never cease to stumble over interesting facts and opinions during your journey through the lesser travelled paths of the linguistic world.